The seforim - Shorashei Minhag Ashkenaz


'Seforim by Rabbi Binyomin Hamburger - Shorashei Minhag Ashkenaz '
In this section we list the contents of Shorashei Minhag Ashkenaz
Many thanks to Daniel Adler of New York for providing the translation/index below

Shorshei Minhogei Ashkenaz - Volume 1
1. Responding to Kedusha

  • Custom of the Geonim and Rishonim;
  • Order of response originating from the Rabbi’s;
  • Ruling (strictness/exactness) of the Rosh et al;
  • The source for the custom of Spanish and Yemenite Jewry;
  • The ancient Polish custom;
  • Enactment of the Taz;
  • Enactment of the Arizal;
  • Lithuanian custom;
  • Custom of the Gra;
  • German (Ashkenaz) custom;
  • Responding to Kedusha on Shabbos and Yom Tov.

2. אחד הוא אלקינו

  • Origin of the text;
  • Answering objections;
  • The custom in later generations;
  • אני ה' אלקיכם

3. וישמחו בך ישראל אוהבי שמך

  • The earliest text;
  • German (Ashkenaz) custom in earlier generations;
  • The custom of Spanish Jewry: וינוחו;
  • The Spanish Cabbalists et al;
  • Removing the text of וישמחו; the argument being that there is no ‘joy’ (שמחה) on Shabbos;
  • France and Provence; Italy; Bohemia, Austria, Moravia, Hungry; Poland;
  • The Chassidic movement;
  • Lithuania;
  • Germany (Ashkenaz) from the time of the Maharil and onwards;
  • Beginning to push off “וישמחו” in Ashkenaz;
  • Defense of “וישמחו” by later authorities (Acharonim);
  • The community of Frankfurt on the Main.

4. גואלנו ה'


  • Source of the original Ashkenaz custom;
  • Objection to the French custom;
  • Spread of the French custom;
  • Surprise concerning “lost hints/implications”;
  • Guarding the Ashkenaz (German) custom in later generations;
  • “צור ישראל” from the teachings of the Chasidei Ashkenaz.

5. Donning a Tallis due to the Honor of the Congregation
• Tallis of the Shliach Tzibur (cantor); • Tallis of the Shliach Tzibur during the afternoon and evening prayer’s; • Tallis for those reciting Kaddish; • Reciting Kaddish near the Shliach Tzibur; • Tallis for those called up to the Torah; • Tallis for one called to the Torah at Mincha (afternoon prayer); • One who dons a Tallis out of respect for the congregation – should he recite a blessing?

6. Honor Due to the Sefer Torah when it is Removed and Returned to the Ark
• Honor due to the Torah and those that learn Torah; • The order of carrying; • Singing; • The occasions when “על הכל” should be sung; • The manner of singing “על הכל”.

7. Recitation of “בריך שמיה”
• The spread of paragraph “בריך שמיה”; • Concealment of the Zohar and Kabbalah; • Opinion of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai; • Implication of the phrase “בר אלהין”; • “סגידנא מקמא דיקר אוריתיה” • Making Requests on Shabbos; • Differing opinions on days when “בריך שמיה” should be recited; • Differing opinions as to the correct order of “בריך שמיה”; • Differing opinions as to the correct text of “בריך שמיה”.

8. The Saturday Night Prayer Service
• Uniqueness of this service in Ashkenaz; • "לדוד ברוך" and "למנצח בנגינות"; • Song for "לדוד ברוך"; • Extending “והוא רחום” and “ברכו”; • Reciting “יתברך וישתבח”; • Chant for ברכו on Saturday night; • ברכו on Saturday night during the month of Elul and the evening following Pesach; • Reciting “ויתן לך”; • The shorter text of “ויתן לך”; • Reciting הבדלה in Shul; • The Shliach Tzibur reciting הבדלה when no guests are present; • “שיר המלות אשרי”.

9. Pronunciation of the “Cholam”
• Four pronunciations; • The Cholam following the rules of dikduk (Hebrew grammar); • The Cholam based on an old Talmudic text; • The Cholam in ancient Ashkenaz; • Cholam according to Rashi; • Cholam according to the Gra; • Poland, Galicia, and Eastern Hungry; • Lithuania; • North Germany and Holland; • Frankfurt on the Main; • Southern and Western Germany; • Correct pronunciation even against those that ridicule.

10. Recitation of Hallel in Shul on the Night of Pesach
• Opinion of early authorities; • Custom of the Arizal according to the Ashkenazi Cabbalists; • Not to change from the original custom; • Opinion of the Lithuanian Rabbi’s; • Israel.

10a.Recitation of Hallel in Shul on the Night of Pesach (Revised Version)
• Hallel on Pesach in Egypt; • Hallel in the Temple during the slaughtering and eating of the Paschal sacrifice; • Hallel after the destruction of the temple: In a house of experts and a house of boors; • Innovation from Tractate Soferim: Hallel in Shul with a blessing; • Spain; areas of Spain; Yemen; France; Provence; Italy; Ashkenaz (Germany); Austria, Bohemia; Hungry; Poland; Lithuania; Israel.

11. Order of the Standing Tekios
• Obligation of the tekios, proper location and order; • Babel, Israel, France, Spain, Yemen, Provence, Italy, Bohemia, Austria, Hungry, Poland, Lithuania, Ashkenaz (Germany); • Tradition from the early Rabbi’s; • Shevarim and Teruah are the same; • To relate the essential aspect of the Law; • Inconveniencing the congregation; • Teruah following the order of the blessings on fast days; • Gathering all the diverse orders; • Equaling forty days; • To confuse the prosecutor (lit. Satan); • Unneeded pausing between the tekios; • Hints of the Shofar; • Not to sound the Shofar during the private prayer.

12. Sound of the Shevarim and Teruah
• Tradition of our father’s; • Sound of the Teruah ccepted from earlier authorities; • Connected Shevarim; • “One Breath” – R’ Tam; • “One Breath” – Terumas Hadeshen.

13. The ‘Shehecheyanu’ Blessing on Purim
• Astonishment on the Ashkenaz Minhag; • Spain; Italy; Provence; France; Bohemia and Austria; Poland; Lithuania; Ashkenaz (Germany); • Shehecheyanu on Shaloach Manos and the Purim meal.

14. The ‘Shehecheyanu’ Blessing at a Bris Milah
• The blessing is not mentioned in the Talmud; • Babel; Ashkenaz (Germany); France; Provence; Spain; Bohemia; Poland; Lithuania; Hungry; Israel; • The pain of the infant; • Possibility of infant mortality; • A common commandment that does not have a set time; • An explicit partnership; • A commandment that is upon the Jewish Court; • A messenger does not recite a blessing; • Oldest son.

15. First Shabbos that a Woman Who Gave Birth Goes Out
• Obligation for one who gave birth to give thanks; • Argument that women should not recite a ‘Gomel’; • Husband being called up to the Torah; • Charity and ‘Misheberach’; • Differing versions of the misheberach recited for a woman who gave birth; • Joy that a woman has when going to Shul (for the first time after birth); • Tune for “שמחים בצאתם” and Kaddish Tiskabel; • Bringing the infant to the Shul; • Small meal that a woman makes for her friends; • The proper time period for the woman to go to Shul; • Woman who is in mourning.

16. Giving the Name at the Babies Crib: ‘Chol Kreish’
• Rare and misunderstood customs; • Order of the ‘Chol Kreish’; • Origins of the custom; • Time of giving the ‘Chol Kreish’; • Inviting children; • The infant’s crib; • Order of recitation; • Manner of reading the ‘Chol Kreish’; • Giving fruit and sweets to children; • Name given to girls at the ‘Chol Kreish’; • Time of giving a name to a daughter; • Time of giving a name to a daughter in other countries; • Implication of the term ‘Chol Kreish’; • Non holy name; • Non Jewish name; • Crib name.

Shorshei Minhogei Ashkenaz - Volume 2
1. 248 words in the recitation of Shema
• 248 words versus the 248 limbs in the body; • The 248 words protecting the body and soul; • Every word has a limb corresponding to it; • The quantity of limbs in a woman’s body; • Those that are of the opinion that it is unnecessary to complete the 248 limbs when reciting Shema

2. Kel Melech Ne’eman before Shema
• The 248 include the words Kel Melech Ne’eman; • Both Amen (after Ahava Rabba) and Kel Melech Ne’eman are included in the 248 words; • Only Amen is needed to equal 248 words; • The implication of the words Kel Melech Ne’eman; • Does the recitation of Kel Melech Ne’eman constitute a Hefsek (disruption)? • Responding Amen to the Shliach Tzibur’s blessing of Ahava Rabba; • Reciting Amen to one’s own blessing of Ahava Rabba; • Reciting Kel Melech Ne’eman in place of Amen; • One is not permitted to change their Minhag (custom)

3. Repeating/Doubling the Words at the End of Shema
• Repetition from L’heyos lachem ley’lokim (להיות לכם לאלקים); • Repetition from Hashem Elokeichem emes (ה' אלקיכם אמת); • Repetition from Ani Hashem Elokeichem (אני ה' אלקיכם); • Differing opinions regarding doubling the word Emes (אמת) in the phrase Hashem Elokeichem emes (ה' אלקיכם אמת); • Repeating Hashem Elokeichem (ה' אלקיכם) without repeating the word Emes (אמת); • Repetition by the Shliach Tzibur from Hashem Elokeichem emes (ה' אלקיכם אמת) before the individual concludes Shema; • Opinion that an individual should repeat Hashem Elokeichem emes (ה' אלקיכם אמת); • Conclusion of the three words by Ma’ariv (תפילת ערבית)

4. Forming a Sequence Between Shema and the Bracha that Follows it
• Concluding Shema and connecting it with the Bracha that follows without the repetition of any words; • Raising the voice when saying the word Emes (אמת) after Shema; • The congregation and Shliach Tzibur waiting at the end of Shema; • Controversy over pausing between V’adir (ואדיר) and u’Mesukan (ומתוקן); • Raising the voice while saying Hashem Elokeichem emes (ה' אלקיכם אמת) without repeating the words; • One is not permitted to change from the Minhag of the Talmud and early Rabbinic sources; • Arguments not to repeat words at the end of Shema

5. Customs Concerning the 248 Words Throughout the Ages
• Israel; • Babel; • France; • Province; • Spain and Northern Africa; • Turkey; • Bohemia, Moravia, Austria, and Hungry; • Italy; • Poland; • Lithuania; • Germany (Ashkenaz)

6. Washing Hands Before or After Kiddush
• Two opinions in Halacha (Jewish Law) and Custom (Minhag); • Israel; • Babel; • Spain; • Yemen (Teiman); • France; • Province; • England • Italy; • Bohemia, Moravia, Austria; • Poland; • Lithuania; • Garmany (Ashkenaz); • One who washes should not recite kiddush; • Washing the hands by Shacharis; • Rinsing and then washing; • Kiddush in the location that one eats; • Washing the hands for fruit; • The order of the meal; • Kiddush being the conclusion of Ma’ariv; • Daytime Kiddush; • Reciting the Brachos of Shehecheyanu and Leshev BaSuccah between washing and eating

7. Announcing the Request for Rain
• Announcing V’sain Tal Umattar (ותן טל ומטר); • Announcing “Request” (שאלה); • Concept of “Request” (שאלה) in the Talmud and Rabbinic sources; • Who makes the announcement?

8. Covering the Sefer Torah: Wimpel(וומפל)
• Nature of the covering; • Case or cover? • Who is permitted to sanctify the cover? • Coverings created from used garments; • Coverings created from women’s clothing; • Women’s names embroidered upon holy vessels; • Covering created from a babies diaper that is used at his Bris (circumcision); • Borrowing the cover from the Torah to use for the Bris; • Covenant of the Torah with the Covenant of Bris; • Using the Wimpel for a different Mitzvah; • How is the Wimple used at the Bris?

9. Preparing the Cover for the Torah
• Amoraim; • Women; • Non-married women; • Mothers and other relatives (of the infant); • Scribes and professional embroiderers; • The material of the Wimple; • Sewing and measurements; • Decorating the cover: embroidery or painting/drawing;

10. Textual Versions of the Wimpel
• The accepted textual version that is written on the wimple; • “to Torah, Chupah (marriage) and good actions;” • Textual versions in other countries; • Arranging the portions that are written on the wimple; • Writing פסוקים (verses from the Torah) and embroidering them

11. Decorating the Wimple
• Decorating the Wimple – Honoring the Torah; • Differing types of decorations and pictures; • Decorating the name of the child and father; • Decorating titles and last names (family names); • Decorating the words: “נולד למזל טוב;” • Decorating the date of the child’s birth; • Decorating the words: “השם יגדלהו;” • Decorating the word: “לתורה;” • Decorating the word: “לחופה;” • Decorating the words: “למעשים טובים;” • Blessings and additional decorations; • Embroidering pictures of animals

12. Bringing the Wimple to Shul – שול טראגן
• Bringing children to Shul in the days of Chazal (the Sages); • The educational value for the child as a result of bringing the Wimple to Shul; • The manner of bringing the Wimple; • “מי שבירך” and the blessing for the Rabbi; • Age of the child appropriate for bringing the Wimple: one month, half year, one year, one – two, two – three, three, three – four, four, five; • Birthday, Bar Mitzvah, Marriage; • Mistaken notions about bringing the Wimple(??)

13. The Spread of the Wimple and its Variations
• Poland; • Italy; • Bohemia and Moravia; • Hungry; • England; • America; • Israel; • Change of name from ‘cover’ (מפה) to ‘Wimple’;

14. Manner of Folding the Wimple
• Folding and attaching (tying); • Tying on the upper third or the bottom; • Tying with two Wimples; • The nice side of the Wimple: to which side? • Tying the Torah with straps

15. Safeguarding the Wimple
• Jewish law concerning washing the Wimple; • Washing the blood out of the Wimple; • The Wimple as a Segulah (merit) for healing from sickess; • The length of the Wimple; • Gathering the Wimples after the Shoa (Final Solution/WWII)

16. Rolling the Wimple, the Individual that gives over the Wimple, Holding the עץ חיים
• Rolling/folding the wimple to give over to the one doing Gellilah (rolling); • The Individual that gives over the Wimple to the Gollel; • Others holding the עץ חיים as the Gollel rolls the Torah


Shorshei Minhogei Ashkenaz - Volume 3
1. Recitation of Shema Using the Cantillation Notes
• The distinction between “Recitation” and “Praying;” • Connection between reading Shema and reading the Torah; • Reciting ‘holy verses’ (פסוקי קדושה) and the ‘13 attributes’ (י"ג מידות) by an individual; • Reciting verses with the cantillation notes while learning Torah; • The strictness of the Cabbalists on using cantillation notes; • Reciting Shema with the cantillation notes; • One who will become confused should read without cantillation notes; • Reciting Shema using music/song (and not the cantillation notes); • Israel, Spain, Yemen, Poland, Lithuania, Germany (Ashkenaz)

2. Raising one’s Voice while Reciting Shema
• Reciting Shema loud enough that ones ears hear what is being said; • Reciting Shema in a measured tone; • Reciting Shema quietly; • ש"ץ reciting Shema aloud while the congregation recites silently; • The first verse out loud; • Israel, Babel, Yemen, Spain, North Africa, Southern Europe, France, Austria and Hungry, Poland, Lithuania, Germany (Ashkenaz)

3. Haftorah Book (ספר אפטרתא) (in scroll form)
• The source for reading the Haftorah; • The Haftorah book; • Written on parchment and rolled (like a Torah); • Rolling the Haftorah book with the coverings made for the Torah; • Stakes/pillars for the Haftorah book (עצי חיים); • Adding vowels and accent marks (trup/טעמים); • Lifting and rolling the Haftorah book; • An ark to guard the Haftorah book

4. Haftorah Book (in book form) on Parchment and Printed
• Folded parchment – book form; • Haftaros in book form; • Printed holy books; • Compiling printed Haftorah books; • Haftoras as part of a complete printed Tanach; • The printed form of G-d’s name in books; • Reciting the Haftorah by heart

5. Books of the Prophets after the Enactment of the Haftorah Book
• The opinion of the Levush and Gra; • The strength of the enactment due to “A time to act for G-d – the Torah is being destroyed” • Enactment 1 – saying “Shalom” • Writing “Shalom” • Saying “Shalom” in a bath house; • Enactment 2 – writing matters meant to be orally transmitted; • Enactment 3 – Haftorah book; • Wealthy communities not acquiring the Prophets

6. The Haftorah Book throughout the Generations
• Babel, Spain and North Africa, Israel, Yemen, Italy, France, Provence, Austria, Bohemia, Hungry, Poland, Lithuania, Germany (Ashkenaz)

7. The Permissibility of Writing Sidurim (prayer books)
• Praying by heart in the times of the sages; • The first written Sidurim; • The permissibility of writing Sidurim due to “A time to act” • The opinion of those who do not allow Sidurim to be written; • The constructiveness as a result of praying from a Sidur; • The connection between writing Sidurim and writing Haftorah books;

8. Cutting a Childs Hair without חאלאקא (upsherin)
• The time to celebrate cutting the hair of children; • The Haircut of the Arizal’s son; • Doubt and astonishment concerning upsherin; • Age of haircutting in the Ashkenaz tradition

9. The ‘Sequence’ for Shavous Night
• Learning on the night of Shavous; • The spread of the order of the learning; • Content of the learning; • The learning according to the order of the Shla; • Megillos: Rus and Shir Hashirim; • Learning Mishnah; • Learning the 613 commandments; • Learning the secrets/depths of the Torah; • Learning with an assembly of people; • 13 Kaddishim; • The song/tune of the learning; • Standing while reciting the ten commandments and generally while reciting the sequence of the night; • Prayers connected with the learning; • Location of the learning; • Eating and drinking during learning; • Expounding during the learning; • Involvement of children in learning; • Women and the night of Shavous; • Immersing one’s self in the morning; • Reciting the sequence on the second night of Shavous; • Learning other topics (not of the ‘sequence’) on Shavous night; • The exalted status resulting from reciting the sequence

10. Singing for the Groom when he is called up to the Torah
• Poetry and singing when the groom is called up to the Torah; • Poetry of Spanish Jewry; • Rabbi Avigdor Kara – author of the song “אחד יחיד ומיוחד קל” • The song ‘אחד יחיד ומיוחד קל’; • How אחד יחיד became written; • The Parallel of אחד יחיד in Yiddish; • The relationship between אחד יחיד and a groom; • Recitation of אחד יחיד when the groom is called up to the Torah; • The regression of the song ‘אחד יחיד’; • Selected tunes to honor a groom

11. Chupas Tallis (Canopy for a wedding made from a Tallis)
• Spreading a veil before the giving of the Torah; • Spreading part of a garment after the giving of the Torah; • Spreading part of a garment in the days of the Judges and Prophets; • Spreading a Tallis in the times of the Sages; • The idea of Chupah in Tanach and the language of the Sages; • Chupas Tallis in the Geonic era; • Spreading a Tallis with Tzitzis (as apposed to a regular garment); • Spreading the woman’s garment; • Two coverings for a Chupah; • The groom spreading the מטרון (garment for mourning) on the bride; • Chupas Tallis among Spanish Jewry in later times; • Chupas Tallis among Ashkenazic Jewry in later times; • Chupas Tallis currently practiced by Spanish Jewry; • Chupas Tallis currently practiced by Ashkenazic Jewry

12. Spreading a Sheet between Poles
• Spreading a sheet over poles for a Chupah; • The source for a sheet on top of poles; • Walking the bride to the canopy in the times of the sages; • The bride entering under the canopy; • Chupas Tallis in addition to the canopy; • The marriage of Spanish Jew’s without a canopy; • Doubts about the sheet spread over poles; • The strength of Chupas Tallis; • The implication of spreading the sheet; • The Chupah of a widow; • The use of a sheet or the curtain from the Ark; • The pole bearers


Shorshei Minhogei Ashkenaz - Volume 4
1. Praying in a Relaxed and Slow Manner
• The prayer’s of Moses our Teacher – short and long; • Rabbi Shimon Ben Yochai and his companions – without any prayer; • The original Chasidim – lengthy praying; • Controversy between the two approaches; • The middle road: having a specific time to pray and reciting prayer in a relaxed manner; • Praying in depth as a result of lengthening one’s prayer; • Praying in one breath; • Israel; Spain; Turkey; Babel; Yemen; France; Italy; Austria, Bohemia, and Hungry; Poland; • The Chasidic movement in Poland and surrounding countries; • Lithuania and Russia; • Ashkenaz (Germany).

2. Waiting for the Greatest Person in the Congregation to Finish His Prayer
• The congregation being burdened by an individual lengthening his prayer; • The congregation being burdened by the Shatz (prayer leader) lengthening his prayer; • Burdening the congregation: perspective of degrading the honor of the congregation; • Burdening the congregation to wait for the greatest individual; • Slowing the congregation’s prayer; • Waiting for the most esteemed of the congregation; • Moving one’s feet to give the appearance of having concluded praying; • Indicating to the Shatz not to wait; • The Rav (Rabbi) instructing the congregation no to wait for him; • A separate minyan (quorum of 10); • If the congregation must wait for the Rav if he is taking an extraordinarily long time; • Waiting after the recitation of Shema; • Waiting for the Rav to enter the synagogue (before beginning).

3. The Rav’s Recitation from למען ירבו
• Forgetting the cantillation notes with the advent of cantors; • The paragraph of Tzitzis: fluent or not? • Remembering the departure from Egypt is a Torah law; • The Rav blessing the congregation; • Reciting verses of rebuke quietly; • Reciting the paragraph of Tzitzis quietly; • The custom of the European congregations.

4. One who Reads the Torah
• One who is called to the Torah reading himself; • The cantor ascending with the one called up to the Torah; • The cantor assisting the reader quietly; • The cantor and the one called to the Torah both reading out loud; • Only the cantor raising his voice during the Torah reading; • The one called to the Torah reading quietly with the Cantor; • The one called to the Torah remaining silent while the cantor reads; • Opposition to the one called up remaining silent; • The cantor dictating to the one called up from a Chumash; • The one who calls to the cantor from a Chumash – 'דר ור לייאר'; • The reader glancing/using a Chumash while reading; • A set cantor – the one who reads the Torah; • The 'בעל קורא' (Torah reader) – a purpose in and of itself.

5. Bringing in a New Sefer Torah on Shabbos
• Bringing in the Torah by Moses our Teacher; • The death of Moses our Teacher on Shabbos; • The death of Moses our Teacher on Friday; • Writing before Shabbos and death on Shabbos; • The giving of the Torah on Shabbos; • The prayer 'ישמח משה' (Moses rejoiced) to remember the giving of the Torah; • Verses of prayer on Shabbos in commemoration of the giving of the Torah; • Studying Torah on Shabbos; • Bringing in a Torah on Shabbos; • Ashkenaz (Germany); Austria, Moravia and Bohemia; Hungry; Poland; those from Spain and Yemen; Israel; • Shavous; Simchas Torah; Hoshana Rabah; Chanukah; Purim; Pesach; Rosh Chodesh; • Setting up a canopy on Shabbos in honor of the Torah; • Walking with a Torah on Shabbos without an Eruv; • Walking with a Torah on Shabbos on a Holiday without an Eruv; • Weekdays.

6. The Time for the Evening Prayer on Shavous Eve
• The novel idea presented by Rabbi Yaakov Pollack: Kiddush at nightfall; • Continuation of the old custom to recite Kiddush early in the day; • Is it possible to fulfill “Temimos” at the commencement of Sefirah? • Is it possible to fulfill “Temimos” at the conclusion of Sefirah? • Spread of the custom to recite Kiddush at night; • The extra novel idea presented by the Taz: Evening prayer’s at nightfall; • Objections to reciting the evening prayer at nightfall; • Spread of the custom to recite the evening prayer at nightfall; • Reciting the evening prayer early in later times.

7. The Sound of the Tekiah
• From were do we know the Tekiah for Rosh Hashanah? • ‘Peshutah’ – straight sound; • ‘Peshutah’ – long sound; • The Tekiah brings rejoicing; • Rejoicing from the Tekiah of Rosh Hashanah; • Raising and lowering the sound of the Tekiah.

8. Throwing Wheat on the Groom and Bride
• Roasted grain and nuts – custom of the Rabbi’s; • Wheat and barley – custom of the early halachist’s (Rishonim); • Additions to Wheat: salt, money, rye; • Substitutes for wheat (in other countries): apples, rice, hopfen, nuts, almonds, sugar, poppy, sweets, confetti; • Limiting degradation of food; • Calling out “פרו ורבו!” (Be fruitful and multiply)! • The time for throwing wheat; • The one’s who throw the wheat.

9. Throwing Sweets in the Synagogue
• Fruits on Shavous; • Fruits on Simchas Torah inside the Synagogue; • Fruits on Simchas Torah outside of the Synagogue; • Sweets among Spanish Jewry; • Sweets in Eastern European Synagogue’s; • Sweets being thrown by women; • Throwing sweets at a Bar Mitzvah and its issues; • Degrading food, eating before Kiddush, and carrying in a public domain; • Those that hold back from throwing sweets.

10. Two Canopies on the Day of Marriage
• The wedding blessings – morning and evening; • Who are our Rabbi’s in Tractate Soferim? • Canopy in the morning and evening in the Geonic era; • Canopy in the morning and evening during the time of the Rishonim (early Rabbi’s); • Canopy in the morning and evening during the time of the Acharonim (later Rabbi’s); • The morning Canopy – the beginning of entering the Canopy; • The time period for the ‘Chupas Mein:’ the morning.

11. Chupas ‘Mein’
• Order of the Chupas Mein; • Giving the bride over to the Groom; • Taking the hand and joining arms among Easter European congregations; • Sitting in the courtyard of the synagogue – custom of (?)Magentsa(?) and surrounding towns; • Sitting in the wedding hall – custom of Worms and surrounding towns; • Sitting on a chair or a bench; • Sitting under a covering or on a platform; • Candles and torches; • Musical instruments; • The accepted tune used for the Chupas Mein; • Enactments regarding eating and drinking; • Connotation/pronunciation of the term ‘Mein’; • Differences in customs regarding the Mein among small congregations; • Discontinuing the Chupas Mein in large cities; • Chupas Mein in later generations (today).

Last updated 11 October '07